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薛定谔的猫是死是活?

时间:2013-11-03 06:54:13  来源:  作者:

Schrödinger's cat is a thought experiment. And it goes like this: if I take a box and in it I put a radioactive source, which is somehow linked to a flask of poison. Now when the radioactive source decays, it's going to release the poison. What if I was then to put a cat in that box and put the lid on it? Now Schrödinger'd argue that because the radioactive source is made of atoms, and it's dictated by quantum mechanics, and because we are not observing it, with the lid on the top, then it would be in a state of superposition. It would be decayed and not decayed at the same time. But of course that's going to have implications on the cat, meaning that cat will be both dead and alive at the same time. It's only when you take the lid off the box, make an observation that the wave function collapses and you find out which one it actually is. Now that sounds absurd, but that's what quantum mechanics says. It highlights some of the problems without interpretation of quantum mechanics. I mean what actually is an observer? Could the cat be considered as an observer? Or does it have to be an human being? What causes the wave function collapse? And also, how does, say the world of atoms, like the radioactivity then scale up when you put lots of them together, to resemble the world we know around us? People have tried to answer these questions. We haven't quite got the definitive answer yet. So I'm afraid for the moment, Schrödinger's cat is still both dead and alive at the same time.

翻译稿:

薛定谔之猫是一个思想实验。它的内容是这样的:假设我有一个盒子,盒子里面我放了一个放射源(译者:放射源很小,小到实验过程中只有一个原子衰变。),这个放射源通过某种方式跟一瓶毒药连接起来。现在,当放射源衰变的时候,它会把毒药释放出来。如果我接着把一只猫放进盒子里,盖上盖子,那会怎样?在这种情况下,薛定谔认为因为放射源是由原子组成的,因为它的衰变遵守量子力学规则,还因为我们没有在观察它,上面盖着盖子,所以它就处在一种叠加态。在同一个时刻,它既衰变了又没有衰变(译者:衰变-未衰变叠加态)。但显然,这会对猫产生影响:即在同一个时刻,猫既是死了又还活着。(译者:死-活叠加态。)只有当你揭开盒子的盖子,作出一个观测的时候,波函数坍缩(为本征态),你才能知道到底是哪种结果。虽然这听起来有点儿荒谬,但这就是量子力学所描述的现象。薛定谔之猫强调了量子力学中一些还没有说明的问题。我说的问题是指:观察者到底是什么?能不能把猫看作是一个观察者?还是说观察者必须是人?什么导致了波函数的坍缩?还有当你把许多个(微观世界)——比如说放射性这样的原子世界——放在一起按比例增大的时候,它们是怎样组成我们周围已知的(宏观)世界的?人们已经尝试过去回答这些问题。我们还没有得到明确的答案。所以恐怕现在来说,薛定谔的猫还是同时处于既死又活的状态。

 

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