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美国1999年《反网络域名抢注消费者保护法》

时间:2011-09-18 11:08:16  来源:  作者:

参议院第1948号《知识产权和通信综合改革法》(参议院提出的法案)
《公法公报》第106—113号颁布(1999年11月29日)

TITLE III–TRADEMARK CYBERPIRACY PREVENTION

• SEC. 3001. SHORT TITLE; REFERENCES.
第III编——商标网络域名抢注的防治
第3001节 法律简称和法律指称
o (a) SHORT TITLE- This title may be cited as the `Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act’.

o (b) REFERENCES TO THE TRADEMARK ACT OF 1946- Any reference in this title to the Trademark Act of 1946 shall be a reference to the Act entitled `An Act to provide for the registration and protection of trademarks used in commerce, to carry out the provisions of certain international conventions, and for other purposes’, approved July 5, 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1051 et seq.).
第(a)条 法律简称——援引本法时,可以称为“《反网络域名抢注消费者保护法》”。
第(b)条 1946年《商标法》的法律指称——本编针对1946年《商标法》的任何指称,均指于1946年7月5日批准通过的标题为“为实施某些国际条约等目的而为用于商业活动的商标提供注册登记和保护的法律”(《美利坚合众国法典》第15编第1051节以下)的法律。

• SEC. 3002. CYBERPIRACY PREVENTION.

o (a) IN GENERAL- Section 43 of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1125) is amended by inserting at the end the following:

 (d)(1)

 (A) A person shall be liable in a civil action by the owner of a mark, including a personal name which is protected as a mark under this section, if, without regard to the goods or services of the parties, that person–
第3002节 域名抢注的防治
第(a)条 一般规定——对1946年《商标法》第43节(《美利坚合众国法典》第15编第1125节)作出修改,在其末尾增加下列规定:
“第(d)条 (1)(A)不必考虑当事人的货物或者服务,具有下列行为之人,在包括根据本节规定作为商标受到保护的个人姓名所有人在内的商标所有人提起的民事诉讼中,应当承担责任——

 `(i) has a bad faith intent to profit from that mark, including a personal name which is protected as a mark under this section; and

 `(ii) registers, traffics in, or uses a domain name that–

 `(I) in the case of a mark that is distinctive at the time of registration of the domain name, is identical or confusingly similar to that mark;

 `(II) in the case of a famous mark that is famous at the time of registration of the domain name, is identical or confusingly similar to or dilutive of that mark; or

 `(III) is a trademark, word, or name protected by reason of section 706 of title 18, United States Code, or section 220506 of title 36, United States Code.
“(i)具有从上述商标中,包括从根据本节规定作为商标保护的个人姓名中,获取利益的恶意意图;
“(ii)并且注册、交易或者使用下列情形之一的域名的──
“(I)由于在上述域名注册之时,上述商标具有显著性,导致上述域名与上述商标相同或者类似至混淆性的程度;
“(II)由于在上述域名注册之时,上述商标为驰名商标,导致上述域名与上述商标相同,或者类似至混淆性的程度,或者会淡化了上述商标;
“(III)系受到《美利坚合众国法典》第18编第706节或者《美利坚合众国法典》第36编第220506节保护的商标、文字或者名称。

 `(B)

 (i) In determining whether a person has a bad faith intent described under subparagraph (A), a court may consider factors such as, but not limited to–

 `(I) the trademark or other intellectual property rights of the person, if any, in the domain name;

 `(II) the extent to which the domain name consists of the legal name of the person or a name that is otherwise commonly used to identify that person;

 `(III) the person’s prior use, if any, of the domain name in connection with the bona fide offering of any goods or services;

 `(IV) the person’s bona fide noncommercial or fair use of the mark in a site accessible under the domain name;
“(B)(i)在判断某个人是否具有第(A)项所规定的恶意意图时,法院可以考虑但不限于下列因素──
“(I)上述域名所含有的该人商标或者其他知识产权权利;
“(II)构成上述域名的上述之人法定名称的涉及范围或者普遍用于识别该人的名称的涉及程度;
“(III)在善意提供任何货物或者服务的过程中,上述之人在先使用上述域名的情形;
“(IV)在上述域名之下可接入的网址上,上述之人出于善意而非商业性使用或者合理使用上述商标的情形;

 `(V) the person’s intent to divert consumers from the mark owner’s online location to a site accessible under the domain name that could harm the goodwill represented by the mark, either for commercial gain or with the intent to tarnish or disparage the mark, by creating a likelihood of confusion as to the source, sponsorship, affiliation, or endorsement of the site;

 `(VI) the person’s offer to transfer, sell, or otherwise assign the domain name to the mark owner or any third party for financial gain without having used, or having an intent to use, the domain name in the bona fide offering of any goods or services, or the person’s prior conduct indicating a pattern of such conduct;

 `(VII) the person’s provision of material and misleading false contact information when applying for the registration of the domain name, the person’s intentional failure to maintain accurate contact information, or the person’s prior conduct indicating a pattern of such conduct;

 `(VIII) the person’s registration or acquisition of multiple domain names which the person knows are identical or confusingly similar to marks of others that are distinctive at the time of registration of such domain names, or dilutive of famous marks of others that are famous at the time of registration of such domain names, without regard to the goods or services of the parties; and

 `(IX) the extent to which the mark incorporated in the person’s domain name registration is or is not distinctive and famous within the meaning of subsection (c)(1) of section 43.

 `(ii) Bad faith intent described under subparagraph (A) shall not be found in any case in which the court determines that the person believed and had reasonable grounds to believe that the use of the domain name was a fair use or otherwise lawful.
“(V)该人有否具有为了牟取商业利益,或者为了抹黑或者贬损上述商标,通过对网站的来源、主办机构、关联机构或者支持机构,制造产生混淆可能的手条,将消费者从商标所有人的网站位置,误导至可能损害该商标所代表的商誉的域名之下可接入的网址的意图;
“(VI)上述之人在没有出于善意提供货物或者服务而使用上述域名或者使用上述域名的意图的情形下,为营利目的,向商标所有人或者任何第三人发出转让、销售或者以其他方式出让上述域名的要约行为,或者上述之人实施了表明具有上述行为倾向的在先行为;
“(VII)上述之人在申请域名注册之时提供重要而误导性的虚假联络信息,上述之人有意不维护准确的联络信息,或者上述之人实施了表明具有上述行为倾向的在先行为;
“(VIII)上述之人不考虑当事人的货物或者服务,注册或者收购大量域名,并且知道上述域名在注册时与具有显著性的他人商标相同或者类似至混淆的程度,或者知道会淡化在上述域名注册之时驰名的其他人的驰名商标;
“(IX)上述之人注册的域名所包含的商标,是否符合第43节第(c)条第(1)款规定显著性和驰名性。
“(ii)法院认为上述之人相信并有合理依据相信系合理使用或者合法使用域名的任何情形,均不应被认定为存在第(A)项规定的恶意意图。

 `(C) In any civil action involving the registration, trafficking, or use of a domain name under this paragraph, a court may order the forfeiture or cancellation of the domain name or the transfer of the domain name to the owner of the mark.

 `(D) A person shall be liable for using a domain name under subparagraph (A) only if that person is the domain name registrant or that registrant’s authorized licensee.

 `(E) As used in this paragraph, the term `traffics in’ refers to transactions that include, but are not limited to, sales, purchases, loans, pledges, licenses, exchanges of currency, and any other transfer for consideration or receipt in exchange for consideration.
“(C)涉及本款规定的域名注册、交易或者使用行为的任何案件,法院均可以判决没收或者注销该域名,或者判决将该域名转让给商标所有人。
“(D)只有域名注册人或者该注册人授权的被许可人,才应对第(A)项规定的域名使用行为承担责任。
“(E)本款使用的‘交易’的术语,指包括但不限于销售、购买、出借、质押、许可、货币交换和其他任何换取对价的转让或者作为对价接受的交易行为。

 `(2)

 (A) The owner of a mark may file an in rem civil action against a domain name in the judicial district in which the domain name registrar, domain name registry, or other domain name authority that registered or assigned the domain name is located if–

 `(i) the domain name violates any right of the owner of a mark registered in the Patent and Trademark Office, or protected under subsection (a) or (c); and

 `(ii) the court finds that the owner–

 `(I) is not able to obtain in personam jurisdiction over a person who would have been a defendant in a civil action under paragraph (1); or

 `(II) through due diligence was not able to find a person who would have been a defendant in a civil action under paragraph (1) by–
“(2)(A)如果符合下列情形,商标所有人可以在域名注册机构、域名注册登记机构以及注册或者分配域名的其他域名管理机构所在地的司法区,提起对物民事诉讼──
“(i) 该域名侵犯了已在专利与商标局注册的或者根据第(a)条或者第(c)条规定受到保护的商标所有人的任何权利;
“(ii)并且法院查明该所有人──
“(I)对于根据第(1)款规定提起的民事诉讼中本应作为被告之人,无法取得对人诉讼管辖权的;
“(II)或者努力通过下列方式不能找到根据第(1)款规定提起的民事诉讼中本应作为被告之人的──

 `(aa) sending a notice of the alleged violation and intent to proceed under this paragraph to the registrant of the domain name at the postal and e-mail address provided by the registrant to the registrar; and

 `(bb) publishing notice of the action as the court may direct promptly after filing the action.

 `(B) The actions under subparagraph (A)(ii) shall constitute service of process.

 `(C) In an in rem action under this paragraph, a domain name shall be deemed to have its situs in the judicial district in which–
“(aa)按域名注册人向注册机构提供的邮政地址和电子邮件地址,向域名注册人发出指控其侵犯行为和意图采取本款规定的行动的通知的;
“(bb)并且在起诉之后,根据法院可能立即作出的决定,公告该诉讼的。
“(B)第(A)项第(ii)目规定的行为,构成送达行为。
“(C)在根据本款规定提起的对物诉讼中,下列司法区应当视为域名的所在地──

 `(i) the domain name registrar, registry, or other domain name authority that registered or assigned the domain name is located; or

 `(ii) documents sufficient to establish control and authority regarding the disposition of the registration and use of the domain name are deposited with the court.

 `(D)

 (i) The remedies in an in rem action under this paragraph shall be limited to a court order for the forfeiture or cancellation of the domain name or the transfer of the domain name to the owner of the mark. Upon receipt of written notification of a filed, stamped copy of a complaint filed by the owner of a mark in a United States district court under this paragraph, the domain name registrar, domain name registry, or other domain name authority shall–
“(i) 域名注册机构、域名注册登记机构以及进行域名注册或者分配的域名管理机构所在司法区;
“(ii) 或者足以证明对域名注册和使用的处分行为享有控制权和管辖权的文件所提交保管的法院所在司法区。
“(D)(i)本款规定的对物诉讼的救济措施,仅限于没收或者注销域名以及将域名转让给商标所有人的法院判决。在收到商标所有人按照本款规定,向美利坚合众国联邦地区法院提起诉讼的加盖印鉴的起诉书副本的书面通知后,域名注册机构、域名注册登记机构或者其他域名管理机构──

 `(I) expeditiously deposit with the court documents sufficient to establish the court’s control and authority regarding the disposition of the registration and use of the domain name to the court; and

 `(II) not transfer, suspend, or otherwise modify the domain name during the pendency of the action, except upon order of the court.

 `(ii) The domain name registrar or registry or other domain name authority shall not be liable for injunctive or monetary relief under this paragraph except in the case of bad faith or reckless disregard, which includes a willful failure to comply with any such court order. .
“(I)应当立即将足以证明法院对域名注册和使用的处分行为享有控制权和管辖权的文件提交法院保管;
“(II)在案件审理期间,不得转让、中止或者以其他方式修改域名,但是,根据法院判决作出的除外。
“(ii)域名注册机构、域名注册登记机构或者其他域名管理机构,不对本款规定的禁令性或者经济性救济措施承担责任,除非其存在恶意或者故意漠视的行为,包括故意不遵守上述法院的任何裁决。

 `(3) The civil action established under paragraph (1) and the in rem action established under paragraph (2), and any remedy available under either such action, shall be in addition to any other civil action or remedy otherwise applicable.

 `(4) The in rem jurisdiction established under paragraph (2) shall be in addition to any other jurisdiction that otherwise exists, whether in rem or in personam.’

o (b) CYBERPIRACY PROTECTIONS FOR INDIVIDUALS-

 (1) IN GENERAL-
“(3)第(1)款规定的民事诉讼、第(2)款规定的对物诉讼以及根据上述任一种诉讼所取得的任何救济措施,均可以补充其他任何诉讼或者可以通过其他方式取得的救济措施。
“(4)第(2)款规定的对物管辖权,可以补充以其他方式存在的任何管辖权,无论该管辖权是对物还是对人。”
第(b)条 为个人提供的域名抢注保护──
(1)一般规定──

 (A) CIVIL LIABILITY- Any person who registers a domain name that consists of the name of another living person, or a name substantially and confusingly similar thereto, without that person’s consent, with the specific intent to profit from such name by selling the domain name for financial gain to that person or any third party, shall be liable in a civil action by such person.

 (B) EXCEPTION- A person who in good faith registers a domain name consisting of the name of another living person, or a name substantially and confusingly similar thereto, shall not be liable under this paragraph if such name is used in, affiliated with, or related to a work of authorship protected under title 17, United States Code, including a work made for hire as defined in section 101 of title 17, United States Code, and if the person registering the domain name is the copyright owner or licensee of the work, the person intends to sell the domain name in conjunction with the lawful exploitation of the work, and such registration is not prohibited by a contract between the registrant and the named person. The exception under this subparagraph shall apply only to a civil action brought under paragraph (1) and shall in no manner limit the protections afforded under the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1051 et seq.) or other provision of Federal or State law.
(A)民事责任──未经另一在世之人同意,将其姓名注册为域名,或者将实质相似并至混淆程度的姓名注册为域名,目的是通过将上述域名出售给在世之人或者任何第三人而获利之人,应当在姓名被抢注之人提起的诉讼中承担责任。
(B) 例外规定──出于善意将在世之人的姓名注册为域名之后之人,或者将实质相似并至混淆程度的姓名注册为域名之人,如果上述姓名用于、附属于或者涉及包括《美利坚合众国法典》第17编第101节所规定的雇佣作品在内的《美利坚合众国法典》第17编所保护的作品,域名注册之人系版权所有人或者作品的被许可人以及具有意图出售与合法利用该作品有关的域名,并且上述注册行为不为注册人和署名人所禁止,不应承担本款规定的责任。本项规定的例外规定,仅适用于根据第(1)款规定提起的民事诉讼,而且不得以任何方式限制1946年《商标法》(《美利坚合众国法典》第15编第1051节以下)以及其他联邦法或者州法规定所提供的保护。

 (2) REMEDIES- In any civil action brought under paragraph (1), a court may award injunctive relief, including the forfeiture or cancellation of the domain name or the transfer of the domain name to the plaintiff. The court may also, in its discretion, award costs and attorneys fees to the prevailing party.

 (3) DEFINITION- In this subsection, the term `domain name’ has the meaning given that term in section 45 of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1127).

 (4) EFFECTIVE DATE- This subsection shall apply to domain names registered on or after the date of the enactment of this Act.
(2)救济措施──对于根据第(1)款规定提起的任何民事诉讼案件,法院可以作出禁令性救济措施的判决,包括判决没收或者注销域名,或者判决将域名转让给原告。法院还可以自由裁量,判决向胜诉方赔偿诉讼费和律师费。
(3)释义──本条规定的“域名”术语,与1946年《商标法》第45节(《美利坚合众国法典》第15编第1127节)所规定的术语含义相同。
(4)生效日期──本条适用于本法颁布之日及其后注册的域名。
 第(b)条 法定赔偿金──对1946年《商标法》第35节【《美利坚合众国法典》第15编第1117节】作出修改,在其末尾处增加下列规定:

“第(d)条 对于涉及违反第43节第(d)条第(1)款的案件,在初审法院作出最后判决之前的任何时间,如果发运认为合适,原告均可以不选择赔偿实际损失和利润的救济措施,而选择取得每个域名不少于1,000美元且不多于100,000美元之间的法定赔偿金的判决。”

• SEC. 3004. LIMITATION ON LIABILITY. Section 32(2) of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1114) is amended–
 

o (1) in the matter preceding subparagraph (A) by striking `under section 43(a)’ and inserting `under section 43(a) or (d)’; and
 

o (2) by redesignating subparagraph (D) as subparagraph (E) and inserting after subparagraph (C) the following: `(D)
 

 (i)
 

 (I) A domain name registrar, a domain name registry, or other domain name registration authority that takes any action described under clause (ii) affecting a domain name shall not be liable for monetary relief or, except as provided in subclause (II), for injunctive relief, to any person for such action, regardless of whether the domain name is finally determined to infringe or dilute the mark.
第3004节 责任限制
对1946年《商标法》第32节第(2)款【《美利坚合众国法典》第15编第1114节】作出修改──
(1)删除第(A)项之前的“根据第43节第(a)条”的规定,增加“根据第43节第(a)条或者第(d)条”的规定;
(2)将第(D)项重新调整为第(E)项,并在第(C)项之后增加下列规定:
“(D)(i)(I)实施第(ii)目规定的对域名有影响的行为的域名注册机构、域名注册登记机构或者其他域名注册管理机构,不论最终是否认定上述域名侵犯了或者淡化了他人商标,但是,第(II)分目另有规定的除外。

 `(II) A domain name registrar, domain name registry, or other domain name registration authority described in subclause (I) may be subject to injunctive relief only if such registrar, registry, or other registration authority has–
 

 `(aa) not expeditiously deposited with a court, in which an action has been filed regarding the disposition of the domain name, documents sufficient for the court to establish the court’s control and authority regarding the disposition of the registration and use of the domain name;
 

 `(bb) transferred, suspended, or otherwise modified the domain name during the pendency of the action, except upon order of the court; or
 

 `(cc) willfully failed to comply with any such court order.
 

 `(ii) An action referred to under clause (i)(I) is any action of refusing to register, removing from registration, transferring, temporarily disabling, or permanently canceling a domain name–
“(II)第(I)分目规定的域名注册机构、域名注册登记机构或者其他域名注册管理机构仅在实施了下列行为之一的情形下,才受禁令性救济的约束──
“(aa)在已经提起的涉及域名处分的案件中,没有立即将足以证明法院对域名注册和使用的处分行为享有控制权和管辖权的档案提交法院的;
“(bb)在案件审理期间,转让、中止或者以其他方式修改域名的,但根据法院命令实施的除外;
“(cc)故意不遵守上述法院的任何命令的。
“(ii)第(i)目第(I)分目规定的行为,系指符合下列情形的拒绝注册、撤销注册、转让、暂时屏蔽或者永远注销域名的行为:


 `(I) in compliance with a court order under section 43(d); or
 

 `(II) in the implementation of a reasonable policy by such registrar, registry, or authority prohibiting the registration of a domain name that is identical to, confusingly similar to, or dilutive of another’s mark.
 

 `(iii) A domain name registrar, a domain name registry, or other domain name registration authority shall not be liable for damages under this section for the registration or maintenance of a domain name for another absent a showing of bad faith intent to profit from such registration or maintenance of the domain name.
 

 `(iv) If a registrar, registry, or other registration authority takes an action described under clause (ii) based on a knowing and material misrepresentation by any other person that a domain name is identical to, confusingly similar to, or dilutive of a mark, the person making the knowing and material misrepresentation shall be liable for any damages, including costs and attorney’s fees, incurred by the domain name registrant as a result of such action. The court may also grant injunctive relief to the domain name registrant, including the reactivation of the domain name or the transfer of the domain name to the domain name registrant.
 

 `(v) A domain name registrant whose domain name has been suspended, disabled, or transferred under a policy described under clause (ii)(II) may, upon notice to the mark owner, file a civil action to establish that the registration or use of the domain name by such registrant is not unlawful under this Act. The court may grant injunctive relief to the domain name registrant, including the reactivation of the domain name or transfer of the domain name to the domain name registrant.’.
“(I)遵守第43节第(d)条规定的法院命令的;
“(Ⅱ)上述域名注册机构、注册登记机构或者注册管理机构,执行禁止注册与他人商标相同或者类似至混淆程度或者淡化他人商标的域名的合理政策的。
“(iii)如果没有证据证明具有从域名注册或者维护中牟利的恶意意图,域名注册机构、域名注册登记机构或者其他域名注册管理机构不对注册或者维护域名的行为而向他人承担本节规定的赔偿责任。
“(iv)如果域名注册机构、域名注册登记机构或者其他域名注册管理机构,根据其他任何人关于某一域名与他人商标相同或者类似至混淆的程度,或者淡化了他人商标的故意且重大的虚假陈述,作出了第(ii)目规定的行为,应由故意作出上述虚假陈述之人承担域名注册人因上述行为遭受的包括诉讼费和律师费在内的损失的赔偿责任。法院也可以判决上述域名注册人取得禁令性救济措施,包括要求激活上述域名,或者要求把上述域名转让给域名注册人。
“(v)根据第(ii)目第(II)分目的规定,域名被暂时停用、暂时屏蔽或者转让的域名注册人,在收到商标所有人发出通知后,可以提起民事诉讼,要求确认,根据本法的规定,其注册或者使用域名的行为是合法的。法院可以判决上述域名注册人取得禁令性救济措施,包括重新激活域名或者将域名转让给上述域名注册人。”

• SEC. 3005. DEFINITIONS. Section 45 of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1127) is amended by inserting after the undesignated paragraph defining the term `counterfeit’ the following:
`The term `domain name’ means any alphanumeric designation which is registered with or assigned by any domain name registrar, domain name registry, or other domain name registration authority as part of an electronic address on the Internet.

`The term `Internet’ has the meaning given that term in section 230(f)(1) of the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 230(f)(1)).’.

第3005节 释义
对1946年《商标法》第45节(《美利坚合众国法典》第15编第1127节)作出修改,在未重新调整序号的解释“假冒”术语的条款后,增加下列规定:
“‘域名’的术语,在任何域名注册机构、域名注册登记机构或者其他域名注册管理机构注册的或者由上述机构分配的、构成互联网电子地址组成部分的、由字母和数字构成的名称。”
“‘互联网’的术语的含义,与1934年《通信法》第230节第(f)条第(1)款【《美利坚合众国法典》第47编第230节第(f)条第(1)款】规定的术语含义相同。”

• SEC. 3006. STUDY ON ABUSIVE DOMAIN NAME REGISTRATIONS INVOLVING PERSONAL NAMES.
 

o (a) IN GENERAL- Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Commerce, in consultation with the Patent and Trademark Office and the Federal Election Commission, shall conduct a study and report to Congress with recommendations on guidelines and procedures for resolving disputes involving the registration or use by a person of a domain name that includes the personal name of another person, in whole or in part, or a name confusingly similar thereto, including consideration of and recommendations for–
 

 (1) protecting personal names from registration by another person as a second level domain name for purposes of selling or otherwise transferring such domain name to such other person or any third party for financial gain;
 

 (2) protecting individuals from bad faith uses of their personal names as second level domain names by others with malicious intent to harm the repu

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